Endnotes

 

 

1

We would like to thank Pablo Beramendi, Helen Callaghan, Renate Mayntz, Abraham Newman, Wolfgang Streeck and Sigurt Vitols for helpful hints and comments.

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2

To simplify our terms, we will refer to non-financial companies as industrial companies, which by definition include both manufacturing and trade.

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3

For statistical analysis of the structure of the German company network, see Beyer (1998); Heinze (2002); Kogut and Walker (2001); Windolf and Beyer (1997); Windolf and Nollert (2001); Ziegler (1984).

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4

Münchner Rück, Bayerische Vereinsbank, Bayerische Hypobank and Commerzbank also belong to the network core and are both actively and passively involved.

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5

This cluster is centered on the RAG (Ruhrkohle AG) and its shareholders VEBA, VEW, Krupp and Thyssen. RAG, in turn, holds shares in Ruhrgas. Additional Ruhrgas shares are held by Mannesmann, Krupp, RWE and VEBA. Further energy and utilities companies are to be found in the periphery of this cluster: Viag, Veag, Bewag, EVS and Hamburger Gesellschaft für Beteiligungsverwaltung.

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6

Daimler-Benz/Metallgesellschaft, Henkel/Degussa, Deutsche Bahn/Lufthansa, Bilfinger+Berger/Buderus.

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7

However, the example of Deutsche Bank board (since 1933, supervisory board) member Emil Georg von Strauss, who was the vice-president of the Reichstag after 1933, shows that NSDAP involvement could also be found among bankers.

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8

We also call attention to disconnected components here.

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9

Some mergers and takeovers have reduced the number of companies. Mannesmann has been acquired by Vodafone, Thyssen and Krupp have merged, VEBA and Viag have merged (now e.on), and RWE and VEW have merged. A Swedish energy company has acquired VEAG and Bewag. The structure of the energy cluster will be further simplified by the acquisition of Ruhrgas by e.on. In the financial sector, Bayerische Hypobank and Bayerische Vereinsbank have merged to form Bayerische Hypo-Vereinsbank, and Allianz has acquired Vereinte Versicherungen. In the retail sector, Schiekedanz and Karstadt have formed the new company Karstadt-Quelle. The chemical firm Hoechst has merged with the French company of Rhone-Poulenc; the new company, Aventis, has its home base in France. In the insurance sector, Italy’s Generali has acquired AMB. Furthermore, some dropouts and new entrants have changed the structure of the network. Bilfiger+Berger, Deutz, Degussa, VEAG and Victoria (acquired by Allianz) have dropped out. New entrants are privatized companies like Deutsche Telekom and Deutsche Post; the software producer SAP; the media companies Kirch and Springer; EADS, which was formerly the aerospace section of Daimler-Benz, has become a separate company, as well as the de-merged parts of former Mannesmann.

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